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Problems with hard water, scale and the rust problem


by Eva Maria Risse


April 4, 2023

What is limescale?
Scale mainly consists of calcium and magnesium – two minerals that by themselves have a healthy effect on the human body. However, what is good for living organisms quickly becomes a scale problem as it deposits in the piping system, in machinery or on surfaces outside the piping system.

So-called hard water holds high concentrations of calcium:
the more calcium in the water, the harder the water and more problems.

The formation of scale
Scale builds up whenever hard water flows through a pipe. Liquid calcium in untreated water crystallizes into a sticky structure.
These crystals adhere to each other, adhere to surfaces and immediately produce solid scale deposits that have a very destructive effect.

Changes of water pressure
Scale grows particularly well when the water pressure changes. This happens when water changes direction in a bend or intersection which then causes turbulence; or when it leaves the piping system through a faucet.
This drop in pressure enhances the formation of calcium crystals, which will then grow into scale deposits.

Increase of water temperature
Scale also forms when the water temperature inside the system increases such as on heating elements or in radiators. The hotter the surfaces, the more scale problems will develop.
These problems can specifically be found on heating elements, with water heaters and heat exchangers.

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